Effects of External Forces on States of Matter

RELATED WORDS

  • Phase transitions
  • The solid state (ice)
  • Liquid state (water)
  • Gaseous state
  • Sublimation
  • Temperature
  • Kinetic energy
  • Latent heat of fusion
  • Latent heat of vaporization

Definition of Effects of External Forces on States of Matter

Matter can be identified by its characteristic inertial and gravitational mass and the space that it occupies. On earth matter is commonly found in three different states: solid, liquid, and gas.

More About Effects of External Forces on States of Matter

  • A state of matter is also characterized by phase transitions
  • A phase transition indicates a change in structure and can be recognized by an abrupt change in properties
  • A distinct state of matter can be defined as any set of states distinguished from any other set of states by a phase transition
  • When substances change state, it is because the spacing between the particles of the substances is changing due to a gain or loss of energy
  • We all have probably observed that water can exist in three forms with different characteristic ways of behaving: the solid state (ice), liquid state (water), and gaseous state (water vapor and steam)
  • Due to water's prevalence, we use it to exemplify and describe the three different states of matter. As ice is heated and the particles of matter that make up water gain energy, eventually the ice melts in to water that eventually boils and turns into steam
  • When the temperature is increased, kinetic energy of the Particles increases
  • When the molecules overcome the forces of attraction, the phase of matter changes from solid to liquid
  • The temperature at which solid melts to become liquid at atmospheric pressure is called its melting point
  • The process of melting is called Fusion
  • The amount of heat required to change 1 kg of solid into liquid at atmospheric pressure at its melting point is called “Latent heat of fusion”
  • Particles in steam, that is, water vapour at 373 K ( 100oC) have more energy than water at the same temperature. This is because particles of steam have absorbed extra energy in the form of “latent heat of vaporization”
  • Substances change from solid to liquid and liquid to gas phase on application of heat
  • Some substances change directly from solid to gas state. Such substances are said to undergo “Sublimation”
  • Applying pressure and reducing temperature can liquefy gases
  • Solid CO2 comes to gaseous state directly on decrease of pressure to 1 atm
  • This is the reason that solid carbon dioxide is also known as dry ice
  • Pressure and temperature determine the state of a substance

Applications:

  • Substances that sublimate can be purified by sublimation
  • Gases can be liquefied and solidified
  • Solid is used as refrigerant