Classification of Acids and Bases

RELATED WORDS

  • Acids
  • base
  • Lewis acid
  • Lewis base
  • Organic acid
  • Inorganic acid
  • Organic base
  • norganic base
  • Strong acid and base
  • Weak acid and weak base

Definition of Classification of Acids and Bases

Acids and bases can be classified as organic and inorganic

More About Classification of Acids and Bases

  • Some of the more common organic acids are: citric acid, carbonic acid, hydrogen cyanide, salicylic acid, lactic acid, and tartaric acid
  • Some examples of organic bases are: pyridine and ethylamine
  • Some of the common inorganic acids are: hydrogen sulfide, phosphoric acid, hydrogen chloride, and sulfuric acid
  • Some common inorganic bases are: sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, calcium hydroxide, and calcium carbonate
  • Acids, such as hydrochloric acid, and bases, such as potassium hydroxide, that have a great tendency to dissociate in water are completely ionized in solution are called strong acids or strong bases.
  • Acids, such as acetic acid, and bases, such as ammonia, that are reluctant to dissociate in water are only partially ionized in solution; they are called weak acids or weak bases
  • Strong acids in solution produce a high concentration of hydrogen ions, and strong bases in solution produce a high concentration of hydroxide ions and a correspondingly low concentration of hydrogen ions
  • The hydrogen ion concentration is often expressed in terms of its negative logarithm, or pH. Strong acids and strong bases make very good electrolytes
  • The solutions of strong acids and bases readily conduct electricity
  • Acids have Sour taste, are corrosive, change litmus from blue to red, become less acidic when combined with alkalies
  • Alkalies (Bases), feel slippery, change litmus from red to blue, become less alkaline when combined with acids
  • Any substance that ionizes when it dissolves in water to give the H+ ion is an acid as per Arrhenius definition

Applications:

  • Any substance that ionizes when it dissolves in water to give the OH- ion is a base
  • HCl → H++Cl-
  • NaOH →Na++OH-
  • The Arrhenius theory can only classify substances when they are dissolved in water since the definitions are based upon the dissociation of compounds in water
  • It does not explain why some compounds containing hydrogen such as HCl dissolve in water to give acidic solutions and why others such as CH4 do not
  • According to Lowry Bronsted concept acids are substances that donate protons and bases are substances that can accept protons
  • A conjugate acid base pair differs by a proton
  • An acid donates a proton and a base accepts it. The base formed from an acid by donation of a proton is called conjugate base of that acid
  • Acid1 base2 acid2 base1
  • According to Lewis concept an acid is a substance that can accept electron pair and a base is a substance that can donate electron pair
  • Examples of Lewis acids: