Plant Root System

Plant Root System

Definition of Plant Root System

The system of roots developed by the plant

More About Plant Root System

  • The root system generally grows beneath the ground into the soil
  • The first root that germinates from the seed is called‘radical’
  • The radical develops into single prominent root called as ‘primary or main root’
  • It is the strongest and grows vertically downwards due to gravitation and deep into the soil
  • Several branches arise from the main tap root known as lateral or secondary roots
  • There are three types of root system namely
    • - Tap root system
      - Fibrous root system
      - Adventitious root system  
  • The root system of plant having one main root that gives of smaller branches is known as tap root system
  • Generally ‘dicotyledonous plants’ posses tap root system. E.g., Mango
  • Root system with numerous fine threadlike roots is known as fibrous root system
  • The fibrous root systems do not have a single main root and branch out in all directions
  • Fibrous root system in generally observed in ‘Monocotyledon plants’. E.g., Paddy, Wheat
  • The fibrous roots are thin, of more or less similar size and more in number
  • The roots that develop from plant part other than the radical is known are ‘adventitious roots’.E.g., Chrysanthimum
  • The radical in the monocotyledon plants is short lived
  • In such cases, the roots develop from parts of the plant other than roots
  • Adventitious roots are very important for vegetative propagation in plants
  • The aerial roots of the banyan tree are example of adventitious roots
  • Functions of Plant root system are as follows
    • - It provides great anchorage and support to the plant. Huge trees such as Mango, Red wood stand erect due to the roots
      - The root hairs absorb nutrients, water and oxygen from the soil and conduct them to the upperparts of the plant
      - Some of the tap roots are specially modified for storage of carbohydrates and water
      For example: Carrot, Sweet potato

Questions related to plant root system:

1) The first root that germinates from the seed is called _____

Solution: Radical

2) The roots that develop from plant parts other than the radical are called ____

Solution: Adventitious roots