Definition Of Non ? Metals

Definition Of Non ? Metals

Non metals are substances that exist in solid, liquid and gaseous states and are present in groups 14 – 16 of the periodic table

More About Non – Metals

  • Non metals are brittle, and cannot be rolled into wires or pounded into sheets
  • Non metals do not conduct heat and electricity very well
  • The non-metals exist in two of the three states of matter at room temperature
  • Gases such as oxygen and nitrogen and solids such as carbon and sulphur are a few examples
  • Non metals do not have metallic luster
  • Non metals do not reflect light
  • The non metals are located on the upper right hand side of the periodic table
  • Nonmetals are separated from metals by a line that cuts diagonally through the region of the periodic table containing elements with partially filled p orbitals
  • The halogens and noble gases are nonmetals
  • The nonmetal element group usually is considered to consist of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur, and selenium
  • Nonmetals have high ionization energies and electronegativities
  • Solid nonmetals are generally brittle, with little or no metallic luster
  • Most nonmetals have the ability to gain electrons easily
  • Nonmetals display a wide range of chemical properties and reactivities
  • They are generally highly insulating, highly electronegative, non-reflective gases

Some common properties of non metals:

  • High ionization energies
  • High electronegativities
  • Poor thermal conductors
  • Poor electrical conductors
  • Brittle solids
  • Little or no metallic luster
  • Gain electrons easily

Uses of Non – Metals:

  • Oxygen is used for breathing
  • Chlorine is used for purifying water
  • Phosphorous is used in crackers
  • Non - metals like nitrogen is used in fertilizers
  • Graphite is used as a good conductor of electricity
  • Potassium is used in fertilizers
  • Nitrogen is used by plants
  • Graphite is used in making leads
  • Carbon is used as a fuel
  • Bromine is used in dyes and pesticides