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Video Example : Neutralization

Neutralization

RELATED WORDS

  • Metal
  • Semi-metal
  • Non-metal
  • Amphoteric
  • Acidic
  • Basic

Definition of Neutralization

The chemical reaction between an acid and base to form salt and water is called neutralization

More About Neutralization

  • During neutralization the anion from the acid combines with cation from the base to form salt and remaining ions combines to form water
    Ex: HNO₃ + KOH → KNO₃ + H₂O
    H₂SO₄ + Ca (OH) ₂ → CaSO₄ + 2 H₂O
  • The concept of neutralization is in our daily life:
    • HCl + NaOH → NaCl + H₂O (formation of salt)
    • H₂O + CO₂ → H₂CO₃ (during respiration)
    • Antacids are useful to decrease the acidity, which works using neutralization concept.

Example:

Milk Magnesia [Mg(OH)₂], Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO₃), Aluminium hydroxide [Al(OH)₃] are some of the basic medicines used to decrease acidity in the stomach. These will react acids present in the stomach thus decreases (neutralizes the excess acid in stomach) the acidity

    Mg(OH)2 + HCl → MgCl2 + H₂O (in decreasing acidity in the stomach)
    • To decrease the pain of ant sting bite sodium bi carbonate is applied which is basic in nature. Whereas the ant sting is acidic
    • This concept is used in decreasing the acidic nature of the soil, adding basic compounds like CaO. As well as to decrease the basic nature of the soil, using rotted vegetables
    • Acidic wastes from factories are neutralized before they are releasing out

During neutralization reaction heat releases out .So, usually neutralization reactions are considered as exothermic reactions.

    Ex: H2SO4 + NaOH → Na2SO4 + H2O, ΔH = - 114 kJ mol-1
    HCl + NaOH → NaCl + HO, ΔH = -57 kJ mol-1

Solved Example:

Ques: The metalloid that used in the first transistor is _

    A. Aluminium
    B. Germanium
    C. Polonium
    D. Carbon

Answer : B

Ques: The metalloid that shows tetra valency is _

    a. Silicon
    b. Aluminium
    c. Tellurium
    d. Antimony

Answer : A