Deficiency Diseases

Deficiency Diseases

Definition of Deficiency Diseases

Diseased condition that occur due to the lack of one or more essential nutrients in the diet over a long period of time

Beriberi is due to deficiency of vitamin B1
Symptom includes partial paralysis of smooth muscles of gastrointestinal tract and skeletal muscle paralysis
Goiter is caused due to deficiency of iodine
Symptoms include the enlargement of thyroid glamd
Anaemia is caused due to deficiency of iron
Kwashiorkor and Marasmus are protein-energy malnutrition disease in children
Kwashiorkor includes oedema of abdomen, enlarged liver, mental retardation etc
Marasmus includes retarded growth, low weight, dry skin and dry-thin dull hair

More About Deficiency Diseases

  • The daily diet should consist of all the required nutrient for the body
  • Nutrients include the Carbohydrates, the Proteins, and fats, Vitamins, Minerals, Roughage and Water
  • Various food sources are rich in various nutrients, but may lack other nutrients
  • Hence it becomes essential to choose and plan diet in such a way that the diet consists various food sources containing maximum number of the nutrients
  • Lack of the above results in deficiency diseases
  • However factors such as hereditary, impaired metabolism, abnormal hormones, impaired absorption also account for deficient condition
    For Example: 
    • Goitre is a condition of swollen neck mainly caused due to deficiency of mineral iodine in the diet
    • The thyroid hormone is not able to produce thyroxin in absence of Iodine
    • However, Hyperactive or underactive thyroid may also lead to Goitre, eventhough if the person’s daily dietary intake of Iodine is normal
    • Deficiency disease is opposite to Obesity
    • Most of the deficiency diseases can be treated by regular intake of sufficient nutrients
    • Deficiency diseases may be caused due to the deficiency of protein, carbohydrate, fat, vitamins or minerals
    • Balanced diet helps to prevent deficiency diseases

Questions based on deficiency diseases:

1) Lack of which of the following leads to deficiency disease?

a) Iodine
b) Calcium
c) Iron
d) All the above

Solution: (d) Though required in small concentrations the inclusion of iodine, Calcium, Iron are vital to prevent deficiency disease.

2) Obesity is the deficiency disease. State whether true or false

a) True
b) False

Solution: (b) Obesity is not a deficiency disease