Allergy is medical condition, which is due to hypersensitivity of immune system in humans. The reaction happens when the immune system of any person reacts adversely to a harmless subsistence. The substance for the causes of such reaction is generally termed as an allergen.
These reactions are acquired, predictable, and rapid, which can cause an inflammatory response that can be ranging from uncomfortable to dangerous condition.
Most of the people commonly encounter mild allergies show symptoms like red eyes, hay fever, hives, runny nose, eczema, or can even lead to asthma attack. Few other fatal allergies caused due to environment, dietary allergens or even medication can even cause death in a patient called as anaphylaxis.
The dust and pollen allergies are caused due to airborne particles causing symptoms affecting eyes, nose, and lungs. In case of hay fever otherwise known as allergic rhinitis causes irritation of nose, redness of eyes, sneezing and itching.
In some cases the allergens when inhaled can cause asthmatic symptoms leading to narrowing airways otherwise known as bronchoconstriction and excessive mucus production in the lungs, difficulty breathing (dyspnea), wheezing and cough.
Few people are also allergic to food, insect stings and medications such as penicillin, antibiotics and aspirin. Food allergy symptoms usually comprise of abdominal pain, bloating, vomiting, diarrhea, itchy skin, and swelling of the skin during hives. Though they rarely cause asthmatic problems or rhinitis
Medicines, insect’s stings and antibiotics can cause anaphylaxis which affects multiples organ systems such as respiratory system, circulatory system, and also digestive systems.
The severity rate of the allergy can cause cutaneous reactions, bronchoconstriction, edema, hypotension, coma, and even fatality. It can happen immediately or at times there is a delay for reaction to be triggered.
Food allergies are caused due the patient’s sensitivity to peanuts, while other allergens can be tree nuts, pecans, pine nuts, and pistachios. Some patients are also allergic to seeds such as sesame seeds and poppy because they contain oil and proteins that can trigger an outburst.
Egg allergies in children usually affectsonly one or two percent of while the sensitivity is usually related to proteins in the white rather than the yolk in the egg.Cow milk, goator sheep milk, is another common reasons that causes food allergy and some are even allergic to dairy products such as cheese.
At times even latex can trigger an IgE-mediated cutaneous, respiratory, and systemic reaction. The percentage of population affected by this kind of allergy is comparatively low when compared to others.
Another common cause for the allergies can also attributed in the case of identical twins as it proved that get similar episodes of allergies for about 40% when compared to others. In the same fashion even parents with a history of allergies are assumed to have children who are prone to get allergies.
Treatments for allergies include avoiding known allergens, use of medications such as anti-histamines that specifically prevent allergic reactions, steroids that modify the immune system in general, and medications such as decongestants that reduce the symptoms. Many of these medications are taken by mouth, though epinephrine, which is used to treat anaphylactic reactions, is injected. Immunotherapy uses injected allergens to desensitize the body's response.