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Seed Germination

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Definition of Seed Germination

The process where the seed sprouts for growing and developing into a plant.

More About Seed Germination

  • Germination is a process when the seed develops into a seedling
  • The seeds that germinate have an embryo inside it that grows into a new plant
  • The process of germination starts with the seed absorbing water
  • The absorption of water activates an enzyme that increases respiration
  • The plant cell divide rapidly and the embryo inside the seed becomes large, and the radical (first root)of the plant emerges from the seed coat
  • Various internal and external factors effect the seed germination
  • The internal factors includes seed vitality, Genotype, Seed maturation and Seed dormancy
  • There are many external factors affecting germination process as follows
      Water:
    • The presence of the water is very crucial for the germinating process
    • The seeds have an embryo, and stored food in the form of starch, proteins and oils enclosed in it
    • Most of the seeds are very dry and need water for its growth
    • The uptake of water by the seeds is known as ‘imbibition’
    • All the cellular metabolic process occurring in the seed requires water
    • The hydrolytic enzyme gets activated in the presence of water and the embryo grows, inside the seed coat utilising the food reserve
    • The seed coat erupts and the radical come out slowly
      Oxygen:
    • Oxygen is required for the metabolism occurring in the germinating seed.
    • The oxygen is used in the aerobic process, which releases energy which is utilised by the seedling till the leaves appear.
    • The seedling gets the oxygen from the atmosphere that is present in the soil pores
    • Temperature:
    • The optimum temperature is required for the germination
    • As germination is a biochemical process and seeds germinate at a temperature slightly above 60o -75o F
    • However, the temperature required varies from seed to seed, some above freezing point, some require cool, some need warm and some require alterations between the warm and cold temperature
    • Light:
    • Most of the seeds generally do not get affected by the light or darkness for germination
    • However, light is essential in the later stage of the plant life cycle