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Goitre

RELATED WORDS

  • Thyroid gland
  • Thyroxine
  • Endemic goitre
  • Sporadic goitre
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Goitre belt

Definition of Goitre

Deficiency diseases caused due to lack of iodine in a person’s diet leading to swollen neck.

More About Goitre

  • Goitre is an enlargement of thyroid gland which is also known as Thyromegaly
  • Other symptoms of Goitre include
    • Coughing
    • Difficulty in swallowing
    • Difficulty in breathing
    • Hoarseness of voice
  • Thyroid gland is located ventral to larynx in the neck region. It secretes thyroid hormone, Thyroxine that is responsible for the growth and development of the body
  • Iodine is essential for the formation of thyroid hormone
  • The secretion of thyroid hormone is regulated by the Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) produced by the anterior pituitary, which itself is regulated by Hypothalamus
  • Deficiency of iodine leads to enlargement of the thyroid gland and hence swollen neck appears
  • The resultant low level of thyroid hormone in the blood accelerates secretion of TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone), that causes thyroid gland enlargement
  • Goitre is most commonly caused due to deficiency of iodine in the diet.
  • However it may also be occurring due to anyone of the following diseased condition.
    • - Autoimmune disease, that destroys the thyroid gland, called Hashimoto’s thyroiditis
      - Hypersecreting Pitutary gland
      - Grave’s disease
  • There are two main phases of Glycolysis as follows:
    • A) Preparatory Phase: ATP is consumed here. It is also known as Investment phase
      B) Payoff Phase: ATP is produced in this phase.
  • However it may also be occurring due to anyone of the following diseased condition
    • Autoimmune disease, that destroys the thyroid gland, called Hashimoto’s thyroiditis
    • Hypersecreting Pitutary gland
    • Grave’s disease
  • Goitre is broadly of two types
    • A) Endemic goitre caused due to the deficient iodine in the diet affecting people residing throughout a particular region known as Goitre belt
      B) Sporadic goitre affects at individual level and the factors may include age, hereditary, diet and gender.
  • The symptoms of Goitre differ as it is associated both with Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism
  • The symptoms differ for the cause of goitre and hence the treatment is also different
  • For a goitre caused due to oversecretion of thyroid gland, the patient is given radioactive iodine to shrink the gland
  • If the cause is due to iodine deficiency in diet iodine rich food is advised
  • Iodine rich food, sea foods and iodised salt helps to treat goitre
  • If the thyroid secretion in less than the thyroid supplements are advised to the patients

Questions based on Goitre:

1) Goitre is caused due to the deficiency of ____

    a) Iron
    b) Iodine
    c) Manganese
    d) Cobalt

Solution: Goitre is caused due to the deficiency of Iodine in the diet

2) Goitre causes swelling in the neck region. Which of the following gland is responsible for such swelling?

    a) Parathyroid gland
    b) Thyroid gland
    c) Pituitary gland
    d) Adrenal gland

Solution: (b) The swelling in the neck is due to the enlargement of the thyroid gland